6. Directional Patterns

Unidirectional pattern

The most common directional pattern is cardioid (unidirectional). Sources in front of the microphone (on axis) are picked up louder than sources placed to the sides of the microphone (off axis). Sources at the back of the microphone are suppressed quite effectively. Cardioid microphones are very versatile, you can use them on almost anything in any situation. Cardioid patterns are also required for many stereo miking techniques.

Directional patterns

Supercardioid and hypercardioid directional patterns, as you might guess, are more directional than the „normal“ cardioid pattern. Both the super- and the hypercardioid pattern suppress sound from the sides more effectively than normal cardioids. However, sound reaching the back of the microphone is picked-up a little louder than with a normal cardioid pattern. That’s important to keep in mind for live situations: when you use hyper- or supercardioid microphones, place the stage monitors not directly behind the mic (as you would with a normal cardioid) but slightly to the sides. With hyper- and supercardioid microphones, rejection is greatest at about 110-130 degrees off the main recording axis. Hypercardiod and supercardioid patterns are often used on stage and in the studio for better separation between sources in close proximity, e.g. snare and hihat.

Bidirectional pattern

Figure 8 is a pattern that is equally sensitive to front and back. An alternate term for figure 8 is therefore “bidirectional.” Sources placed to the sides, however, are rejected very, very effectively. The figure 8 pattern is very rare for small diaphragm microphones. That’s because the bidirectional pattern requires the mic to be designed for side addressed use (like most large diaphragm condensers), so the back of the capsule is exposed. Typical small diaphragm “pencil” mics, however, are designed to be used end addressed, so the back of the capsule is covered by the microphone housing. Figure 8 microphones are less versatile than cardioids; they are mostly used for certain stereo miking techniques (M/S, Blumlein). Small diaphragm capsules for figure 8 pattern are only offered by some of the more expensive high class manufacturers.

Omnidirectional pattern

Omnidirectional microphones pick up sound from all sounds equally. Omnidirectional mics are rarely used on stage, because they easily produce horrible feedback. In the studio, engineers like to use omnidirectional mics on stringed instruments, among other things, because they produce a very natural sound with a lot of “air”. Omnidirectional microphones pick up a lot of ambience and therefore work best in great-sounding rooms. For stereo miking, omnidirectional microphones should not be used too close to each other, or there will be no stereo image to speak of. XY-stereo miking won’t work, as omnis do not pick up directional information. But “spaced omnis”, as engineers call the most common stereo technique for omnidirectional microphones, produce a very wide and impressive sound image.

Modular Capsule Systems

Some small diaphragm microphones allow you to change the directional pattern by exchanging capsule heads. The more exclusive brands (such as Schoeps) offer a wide variety of capsules, head amplifiers and other accessories. Among entry level microphones, some manufacturers offer pre-configured sets of several capsules (cardioid, omni, sometimes hypercardioid) which can be screwed to the head amplifier (i.e. the microphone electronics). Switchable patterns, as are common among large diaphragm microphones, are extremely rare among small diaphragm microphones.

Juuri katsellut
Focusrite Scarlett 2i2 3rd Gen

2-Channel USB2.0 audio interface with USB-C connection 24-Bit / 192 kHz, 2 Scarlett microphone preamps, Phantom power +48 V, Switchable air function, 2 Mic / instrument / line inputs: XLR / 6.3 mm jack combo balanced, 2 Line outputs:...

Juuri katsellut
Antares Auto-Tune EFX+

Antares Auto-Tune EFX+ (ESD); pitch correction plugin; software for automatical or manual correction of pitch and intonation; Retune-Speed control for fine tune the desired effect from subtle natural pitch correction to the Auto-Tune Vocal Effect; humanize function reduces artefacts; Auto-EFX...

Juuri katsellut
Meris Hedra Pitch-Shifter

Effect Pedal for Electric Guitar Pitch shifter, 3 Harmony voices / delay lines with rhythmic time offset, Tap Tempo function and synchronisation, 12 Diatonic harmonies and chromatic pitch shifting, Up to 16 presets via MIDI, 24 Bit AD /...

Juuri katsellut
Harley Benton GS-Travel-E LH Mahogany

Steel-String Guitar Left handed model, Design: Mini Travel Grand Symphony, Body: Selected mahogany, Arched back, Neck: NATO, Neck profile: V, Fretboard: Blackwood, Scale: 596 mm, Nut width: 43 mm, 20 Frets, Dot inlays, Black body and neck bindings, Bridge:...

Juuri katsellut
Reloop Spin

Reloop Spin, Portable Turntable, Out of the Box: Comes with 7 '' Scratch Vinyl, Pre-Assembled 45mm Crossfader & Pickup System, Built-in Speaker, Bluetooth Audio Receiver, Bluetooth Audio Streaming: Wirelessly Transfer Music or Beats to Turntable, Smart USB Recording: Direct recording...

Juuri katsellut
Numark Scratch

Numark Scratch, 2-channle Scratch Mixer for Serato DJ Pro with DVS-license, Serato NoiseMap-compliant with use of Control Vinyls or CDs (optional obtainable), InnoFader Scratch Crossfader with Reverse- and Slope-control, 6 effect choice switches with two Paddle-trigger and Dry-Wet FX-control, 8...

Juuri katsellut
Marshall Stanmore BT II Black

Stanmore BT II Black portable Bluetooth Speaker, 1x 50 W woofer, 2x 15 W tweeter, class D amplifier, bass reflex enclosure, 50 - 20000 Hz, bluetooth standard V 5.0, 3.5mm input for MP3 players etc, RCA input, controls for volume...

Juuri katsellut
Varytec Hero Spot Wash 140 2in1 RGBW+W

Varytec Hero Spot Wash 140 2in1 RGBW+W, 2in1 LED Spot Wash Moving Head, the "MacGyver" of the Moving Lights is the universal lighting tool for all heroes, combines two devices in one housing, saves time and space in the rig,...

Juuri katsellut
Marq Lighting Ray Tracer X

Marq Lighting Ray Tracer X Quad; Dual Roller Bar Chase Movinghead; Two independently tiltable LED bars with rotating base; 8 x 10 watt high power CREE cold white LEDs, individual control of all LEDs; 25 different automatic programs for exciting...

Juuri katsellut
MXL AC-360-Z V2 Black

MXL AC-360-Z V2 Black; Conferencing Microphone; USB microphone for conferences and webinar applications; 12 internal condenser capsules for full 360° audio pickup; compatible with Zoom Video Communications software; connection via USB-C cable; no driver installation required; audio pickup radius: >...

Juuri katsellut
Focusrite Scarlett 18i20 3rd Gen

18-Channel USB2.0 audio interface with USB-C connection 24 Bit / 192 kHz, 8 Scarlett microphone preamps, Phantom power +48 V, Switchable air function, Talkback function with integrated microphone, Pad switch, 8 Mic / line inputs: XLR / 6.3 mm...

Juuri katsellut
Varytec Giga Bar Pix 8 RGB

Varytec Giga Bar Pix 8 RGB; LED bar with RGB LEDs and 8 individually controllable segments; ideal as decorative lighting with color gradients and for "running lights"; better color mixing with 3-in-1 LEDs; flicker-free light thanks to high PWM; including...

anna palautetta
Palaute Löysitteko virheen tai haluatteko antaa palautetta?

Odotamme palautettanne ja korjaamme mahdolliset virheet pikimmiten.