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Online Guide Small Diaphragm Mics
Directional Patterns

 


UnidirectionalAn audio device (usually a microphone) which operates primarily in a single direction.
Unidirectional
pattern

Cardioid pattern

The most common directional pattern is
CardioidA heart-shaped microphone response pattern. In effect, cardioid mics are generally directional, but not strongly unidirectional.
cardioid
(unidirectional). Sources in front of the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphone
(on axis) are picked up louder than sources placed to the sides of the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphone
(off axis). Sources at the back of the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphone
are suppressed quite effectively.
CardioidA heart-shaped microphone response pattern. In effect, cardioid mics are generally directional, but not strongly unidirectional.
Cardioid
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
are very versatile, you can use them on almost anything in any situation.
CardioidA heart-shaped microphone response pattern. In effect, cardioid mics are generally directional, but not strongly unidirectional.
Cardioid
patterns are also required for many stereo miking techniques.


Directional patterns

Supercardioid pattern

SupercardioidA type of microphone polar response pattern, similar to hypercardioid, except that the response is slightly greater from the side and slightly lower at the rear.
Supercardioid
and
HypercardioidA type of microphone polar response pattern which is similar to a cardioid response but more strongly directional, and with a small lobe of response directly to the rear.
hypercardioid
directional patterns, as you might guess, are more directional than the „normal“
CardioidA heart-shaped microphone response pattern. In effect, cardioid mics are generally directional, but not strongly unidirectional.
cardioid
pattern. Both the super- and the
HypercardioidA type of microphone polar response pattern which is similar to a cardioid response but more strongly directional, and with a small lobe of response directly to the rear.
hypercardioid
pattern suppress sound from the sides more effectively than
NormalType of patchbay configuration in which a top row socket is internally connected by default to the corresponding bottom row socket; the connection may be broken by inserting a plug into one or both front panel sockets, depending on the type of normalling in use.
normal
CardioidA heart-shaped microphone response pattern. In effect, cardioid mics are generally directional, but not strongly unidirectional.
cardioids
. However, sound reaching the back of the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphone
is picked-up a little louder than with a
NormalType of patchbay configuration in which a top row socket is internally connected by default to the corresponding bottom row socket; the connection may be broken by inserting a plug into one or both front panel sockets, depending on the type of normalling in use.
normal
CardioidA heart-shaped microphone response pattern. In effect, cardioid mics are generally directional, but not strongly unidirectional.
cardioid
pattern. That’s important to keep in mind for live situations: when you use hyper- or
SupercardioidA type of microphone polar response pattern, similar to hypercardioid, except that the response is slightly greater from the side and slightly lower at the rear.
supercardioid
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
, place the stage
Monitor1) Recording studio loudspeaker. 2) Stage loudspeaker, usually wedge-shaped, facing the performers so that they may hear themselves. 3) Computer display screen.
monitors
not directly behind the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
mic
(as you would with a
NormalType of patchbay configuration in which a top row socket is internally connected by default to the corresponding bottom row socket; the connection may be broken by inserting a plug into one or both front panel sockets, depending on the type of normalling in use.
normal
cardioid) but slightly to the sides. With hyper- and
SupercardioidA type of microphone polar response pattern, similar to hypercardioid, except that the response is slightly greater from the side and slightly lower at the rear.
supercardioid
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
, rejection is greatest at about 110-130 degrees off the main recording axis. Hypercardiod and
SupercardioidA type of microphone polar response pattern, similar to hypercardioid, except that the response is slightly greater from the side and slightly lower at the rear.
supercardioid
patterns are often used on stage and in the studio for better separation between sources in close proximity, e.g. snare and hihat.


Bidirectional pattern

Figure 8 pattern

Figure 8 is a pattern that is equally sensitive to front and back. An alternate term for figure 8 is therefore “bidirectional.” Sources placed to the sides, however, are rejected very, very effectively. The figure 8 pattern is very rare for small
DiaphragmIn a microphone the diaphragm is a thin membrane up to 1" in diameter that converts sound waves into electrical current. A loudspeaker diaphragm does exactly the reverse.
diaphragm
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
. That’s because the bidirectional pattern requires the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
mic
to be designed for side addressed use (like most large
DiaphragmIn a microphone the diaphragm is a thin membrane up to 1" in diameter that converts sound waves into electrical current. A loudspeaker diaphragm does exactly the reverse.
diaphragm
condensers), so the back of the
CapsuleThe part of a microphone containing the diaphragm which moves or vibrates in response to sound waves.
capsule
is exposed. Typical small
DiaphragmIn a microphone the diaphragm is a thin membrane up to 1" in diameter that converts sound waves into electrical current. A loudspeaker diaphragm does exactly the reverse.
diaphragm
“pencil” mics, however, are designed to be used end addressed, so the back of the
CapsuleThe part of a microphone containing the diaphragm which moves or vibrates in response to sound waves.
capsule
is covered by the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphone
housing. Figure 8
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
are less versatile than cardioids; they are mostly used for certain stereo miking techniques (M/S, Blumlein). Small
DiaphragmIn a microphone the diaphragm is a thin membrane up to 1" in diameter that converts sound waves into electrical current. A loudspeaker diaphragm does exactly the reverse.
diaphragm
CapsuleThe part of a microphone containing the diaphragm which moves or vibrates in response to sound waves.
capsules
for figure 8 pattern are only offered by some of the more expensive high class manufacturers.


OmnidirectionalsDescribes a microphone that responds to sound equally from all directions. This is represented as a circular or spherical response pattern; omnidirectional designs are often used as ambient microphones.
Omnidirectional
pattern

Omnidirectional pattern

OmnidirectionalsDescribes a microphone that responds to sound equally from all directions. This is represented as a circular or spherical response pattern; omnidirectional designs are often used as ambient microphones.
Omnidirectional
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
pick up sound from all sounds equally.
OmnidirectionalsDescribes a microphone that responds to sound equally from all directions. This is represented as a circular or spherical response pattern; omnidirectional designs are often used as ambient microphones.
Omnidirectional
mics are rarely used on stage, because they easily produce horrible
FeedbackThe phenomenon whereby audio picked up by a microphone or guitar pickup that is then played from a speaker close or loud enough for it to be captured again by the same source. If left the signal will continuously loop, with any resonant frequency causing the undesirable 'howling' sound often heard at concerts.
feedback
. In the studio, engineers like to use
OmnidirectionalsDescribes a microphone that responds to sound equally from all directions. This is represented as a circular or spherical response pattern; omnidirectional designs are often used as ambient microphones.
omnidirectional
mics on stringed instruments, among other things, because they produce a very natural sound with a lot of “air”.
OmnidirectionalsDescribes a microphone that responds to sound equally from all directions. This is represented as a circular or spherical response pattern; omnidirectional designs are often used as ambient microphones.
Omnidirectional
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
pick up a lot of
AmbienceCharacter of an environment. In audio, the sonic characteristics of a space, from the size of the space to what type of sounds are a normal part of it.
ambience
and therefore work best in great-sounding rooms. For stereo miking,
OmnidirectionalsDescribes a microphone that responds to sound equally from all directions. This is represented as a circular or spherical response pattern; omnidirectional designs are often used as ambient microphones.
omnidirectional
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
should not be used too close to each other, or there will be no stereo image to speak of. XY-stereo miking won’t work, as omnis do not pick up directional information. But “spaced omnis”, as engineers call the most common stereo technique for
OmnidirectionalsDescribes a microphone that responds to sound equally from all directions. This is represented as a circular or spherical response pattern; omnidirectional designs are often used as ambient microphones.
omnidirectional
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
, produce a very wide and impressive sound image.


Modular
CapsuleThe part of a microphone containing the diaphragm which moves or vibrates in response to sound waves.
Capsule
Systems

Some small
DiaphragmIn a microphone the diaphragm is a thin membrane up to 1" in diameter that converts sound waves into electrical current. A loudspeaker diaphragm does exactly the reverse.
diaphragm
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
allow you to change the directional pattern by exchanging
CapsuleThe part of a microphone containing the diaphragm which moves or vibrates in response to sound waves.
capsule
heads. The more exclusive brands (such as Schoeps) offer a wide variety of
CapsuleThe part of a microphone containing the diaphragm which moves or vibrates in response to sound waves.
capsules
, head amplifiers and other accessories. Among entry level
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
, some manufacturers offer pre-configured sets of several
CapsuleThe part of a microphone containing the diaphragm which moves or vibrates in response to sound waves.
capsules
(cardioid,
OmniSetting a MIDI device to Omni Mode enables it to receive data on any of the 16 possible MIDI channels. Used when many MIDI devices were not multi-timbral and so did not need to have different sounds set to different, independent MIDI channels.
omni
, sometimes hypercardioid) which can be screwed to the head
AmplifierA device for increasing the power of a signal by taking power from a supply and shaping the output to match the input signal.
amplifier
(i.e. the
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphone
electronics). Switchable patterns, as are common among large
DiaphragmIn a microphone the diaphragm is a thin membrane up to 1" in diameter that converts sound waves into electrical current. A loudspeaker diaphragm does exactly the reverse.
diaphragm
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
, are extremely rare among small
DiaphragmIn a microphone the diaphragm is a thin membrane up to 1" in diameter that converts sound waves into electrical current. A loudspeaker diaphragm does exactly the reverse.
diaphragm
MicrophoneA device which converts airborne sound into an electrical signal.
microphones
.

 

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